Volume 35, No. 03, Month MAY, Year 2020, Pages 249 - 254

Quercetin enhances phenformin in inhibition of cholangiocarcinoma cell growth

Rattanaporn Jaidee, Sarinya Kongpetch, Auemduan Prawan, Laddawan Senggunprai, Upa Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol Kukongviriyapan

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Background and Objective: Phenformin, and flavonoid compounds, quercetin and myricetin are effective against many types of cancers. This study evaluated the treatments of phenformin in combination with quercetin or myricetin in the inhibition of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) cells. Methods: Cholangiocarcinoma cells, KKU-156, were used in this study. Cell cytotoxicity was evaluated by sulforhodamine-B assay (SRB). Mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm) was analyzed by JC-1 assay. Results: Phenformin significantly inhibited proliferation of cancer cells. Phenformin in combination with quercetin, but not myricetin, could increase the cytotoxicity of cancer cells. Phenformin, quercetin or in the combination induced the loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential. Conclusions: Quercetin increased phenformin in inhibition of cancer cell growth. The mechanism may be by the increase of induction of mitochondrial damage leading to cell death. This finding suggests that phenformin in combination with quercetin has potential to increase efficacy of chemotherapy of cholangiocarcinoma.


Phenformin, quercetin, myricetin, cholangiocarcinoma, mitochondrial transmembrane potential


Published by : Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University
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